The Latest Water Research Foundation Reports

Below you will find the latest reports published by The Water Research Foundation as of January 2019.

Report Title 

Research Area

Project Number

Evaluating the Fate of Coliphages in WRRFs and Potential Costs to Reduce Coliphages in WRRF Effluents
This research evaluates the fate and treatability of bacterial indicators, viral indicators, and enteric viruses in wastewater in relation to potential viral indicator updates to the U.S. EPA’s Recreational Water Quality Criteria.


Evaluation of Data Needs for Nutrient Target-Setting Using the Nutrient Modeling Toolbox

This research examines the amount of data required to develop a mechanistic water quality model that can support water quality management actions for nutrients.

Nutrients  LINK3R16/4814 
Opportunities and Barriers for Renewable and Distributed Energy Resource Development at Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities
The objectives of this project were to:
Identify and discuss opportunities for distributed energy resource (DER) development at drinking water and wastewater utilities. 
Assess the legislative, regulatory, and policy environment impacting DER developments.
Undertake case studies of implemented DER utility projects.
Convene webinars and a workshop to shape a guidebook and build resources to help utilities navigate challenges and implement DER solutions. 
Document research findings in a practical utility guidebook. 

 Energy  4625
Self-Healing Hydrogel-Composite Membranes: From Proof of Concept to Water Reuse Application

This research evaluates the performance of first generation self-healing composite membranes under a wide range of realistic conditions and further optimizes the self-healing membrane for faster technology transfer to industry.

 Water Reuse WRF-17-25/4903 

GAC Control of Regulated and Emerging DBPs of Health Concern

This project evaluated the efficacy, design, and cost implications of using GAC to remove precursors and pre-formed halogenated and non-halogenated C- and N-DBPs of concern in order to provide utilities, regulators, and consultants with a better understanding of the implications of GAC use for the control of regulated and emerging DBPs.

 Drinking Water 4560 

Assessment of Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality from Direct and Indirect Potable Reuse Facilities

This project produced a direct potable reuse (DPR) guidance framework that water utilities and regulators can use to evaluate the safety of existing or potential future DPR scenarios and help facilitate a proactive DPR monitoring process that is protective of public health.

Water Reuse

Controlled Laboratory Investigation of Siloxane Adsorption Media and Variables Impacting Performance

This research examines the effects of gas composition, humidity, and hydrogen sulfide concentration on siloxane mass-transfer behavior, and consequently on sorbent performance.

Resource Recovery

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of the Water Footprint Concept for Sustainable Decision Making
This project studied options for balancing future supply and demand using systems or catchment-level water footprinting according to the International Organization for Standardization's standard 14046.

Drinking Water  4652 
Integrating Management of Sensor Data for a Real Time Decision Making and Response System

This research developed a framework for an overall decision support system (DSS) to aid operators and managers of direct potable reuse facilities to make appropriate real-time actions based on anomalies and events at critical process control points and ensure regulatory compliance.

 Water Reuse  Reuse-14-01/4759
Decision-Making Framework for the Prioritization of Research into Constituents of Concern

This research provides a framework (Bayesian Network) that prioritizes research on constituents of emerging concern (CECs) for water and wastewater utilities and others including water research providers and water research agencies.

 CECs WERF3C16/4889 
State of the Science and Issues Related to Heat Recovery from Wastewater
This research explores the feasibility of recovering thermal energy from sewage, and what the state of current technology is for doing so.

 Climate Change, Energy
Kinetics Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Chloramine Photolysis in Ultraviolet-driven Advanced Water Treatment
This project elucidates the ultraviolet-driven advanced oxidation process (AOP) of trace organic contaminants in wastewater effluent on the basis of one oxidant (i.e., chloramine).

 Water Reuse  4699
Guidance Manual for Monitoring Biological Filtration of Drinking Water

The ultimate goal of this research was to integrate monitoring and control components to enable robust process monitoring and control for biofiltration.

Drinking Water   4620
Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Wastewater
This project quantifies the potential recovery and commoditization of rare earth elements (REE) from municipal wastewater and biosolids.

 Resource Recovery NTRY8R15b/
Guidance on Implementing an Effective Water Loss Control Plan
This project created a Guidance Manual and Decision Framework to help North American water utilities develop actionable, cost-effective, and defensible water loss reduction and control plans.

 Drinking Water 4695 
Hybrid NF-RO Sodium Chloride Removal Process Pilot Study
This research presents a novel approach to salinity control of reclaimed water that can yield substantially reduced costs for membrane concentrate disposal.

 Water Reuse Reuse-17-01/
Workshop: Advancing Understanding of Microbiomes in Drinking Water Distribution Systems and Premise Plumbing Using Meta-omics Techniques
This NSF Workshop examined the feasibility and practicality of meta-omics techniques to analyze microbiome-engineered water systems and to identify areas for collaboration and synergy in research focused on the understanding of microbiomes in water.

Drinking Water  4733 
Case Study on Barriers and Solutions for Putting Innovation into Practice
This case study details the experience and examines the challenges in pursuing innovation in the water sector. 

Methods for Integrity Testing and Online Monitoring of NF and RO Membranes
This research evaluates scientifically proven methods for integrity monitoring of RO membranes to provide a better understanding of the performance of these methods for widespread application in the industry.

Water Reuse  Reuse-12-07/
Challenges and Practical Approaches to Water Reuse Pricing
This project evaluated challenges and practical approaches to water reuse pricing.

Water Reuse   4662
Investigation of Buried Large-Diameter Steel Pipes with Controlled Low-Strength Material
The purpose of this project was to enhance the current standard pipeline design specification for steel pipes.

 Asset Management 4587 
Optimization and Design of a Side-Stream EBPR Process as a Sustainable Approach for Achieving Stable and Efficient Phosphorus Removal
This research examines a new side-stream EBPR process (S2EBPR) that uses a side-stream anaerobic biological sludge hydrolysis and fermentation reactor to address the common challenge in EBPR related to weak wastewater influent and to improve EBPR process stability.

Nutrients   U1R13
Evaluation and Optimization of Microcystin Analytical Methods 
The goal of this project was to identify and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the Ohio EPA ADDA-ELISA method and EPA Method 544, Determination of Microcystins and Nodularin in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

 Drinking Water 4647 

Forging Powerful and Sustainable Relationships Between Clean Water Agencies and the Community
This project investigated how clean water agencies (CWAs) can leverage emotional motivators in public engagement programs to create longstanding relationships with the community.

Integrated Water  4678
Literature Review: Advancing Understanding of Microbiomes in Drinking Water Distribution Systems and Premise Plumbing Using Meta-omics Techniques 
This project supported the National Science Foundation workshop (project 4733) by developing a literature review report on the status of drinking water microbiome studies using meta-omics techniques.

Drinking Water   4700

Impact of EBPR on Dewaterability
This research evaluates the impact of chemical conditioning to improve or recover the dewaterability of digested solids, both enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) solids and non-EBPR solids, in terms of cake concentration and interstitial water.

Nutrients  NUTR5R14d/
Resilient Water Infrastructure: Improving Understanding and Assessing Needs
The long-term goal of this research is to drive water utilities to become more resilient enterprises.

Asset Management  4707

Predicting Reverse Osmosis Removal of Unique Organics

This research provides insight into the removal of individual organics for potable reuse applications using reverse osmosis and includes an Excel-based Tool to calculate the mass transfer coefficients of organics.

Water Reuse Reuse-14-19/

Carlsbad Desalinated Seawater Integration Study

This comprehensive full-scale study examines the impact of integrating seawater desalinated via reverse osmosis (SWRO) water into existing regional supplies of disparate quality.

Water Reuse

Agricultural Use of Recycled Water: Impediments and Incentives

This research employed multiple methods to evaluate the impediments and incentives impacting the use of recycled water in agriculture, and how their relevance differed among different stakeholder groups.

Water Reuse Reuse-15-08/