The Latest Water Research Foundation Reports

Below you will find the latest reports published by The Water Research Foundation as of January 2018.

Research Area 

Demonstrating Redundancy and Monitoring to Achieve Reliable Potable Reuse

This report presents the results of a reliability analysis and challenge tests, and shows how a combination of redundancy, robustness, and resilience can ensure that direct potable reuse is protective of human health.

 Water Reuse Reuse-14-12 
Multi-Mode Filtration System for Wastewater Recovery and Desalination
The goal of this project was to build and test a multi-mode water filter that uses electronic, magnetic, and membrane filtering as opposed to conventional filters.

Water Reuse,

From Collection Systems to Tap: Resilience of Treatment Processes for Direct Potable Reuse
This project established resilience guidelines for DPR process trains from wastewater source through wastewater treatment and advanced water treatment.
Water Reuse,
Climate Change,
 Emergency Response 
Soil Aquifer Treatment Characterization with Soil Columns for Groundwater Recharge in the San Fernando Valley

In June 2014, the California Division of Drinking Water adopted the Groundwater Replenishment Recharge Regulations, allowing for spreading of recycled water treated to Title 22 standards supplemented by adequate dilution water. Facing this regulatory change, LADWP wanted to understand the soil aquifer treatment (SAT) process and how it may impact potable reuse in the coming years. Soil columns were demonstrated and operated to mimic a potential full-scale groundwater recharge practice to characterize the effectiveness of SAT by loading the soil columns with local aquifer media, feeding the soil columns with recycled water proposed for the project, and operating the soil columns in a cyclic mode to simulate regional groundwater recharge practices.

 Drinking Water,
Water Reuse
An Evaluation of the Value of Structurally Enhanced PVC Pipe, Installation Guide for iPVC Pipe

This research highlights the performance characteristics and the installation requirements for a new structurally enhanced PVC pipe. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on the pipe, and as well as real world installation.
Asset Management,
Conveyance Systems

Alternative Water Source Requirements for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment
Through literature review, workshop(s), and expert insight, this project will establish ranges for alternative source water quality parameters that would meet or exceed the threshold for “acceptability” in conventional drinking water treatment for potable reuse applications.

Integrated Water
Evaluation of cVOC Removal Efficiencies by Various Technologies
The objective of this project was to evaluate effectiveness and reliability of various technologies (air-stripping, GAC, and advance oxidation process) to remove cVOCs at low concentration of interest.

Advanced Condition Assessment and Failure Prediction Technologies for Optimal Management of Critical Water Supply Pipes
This research encompasses a five-year program to enhance understanding of pipe condition and deterioration mechanisms to better predict when and where a pipe might fail, and the best method to intervene in order to extend the longevity of a pipe.

 Drinking Water,
Asset Management
Advancing Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater Solids and Food Waste for Energy and Resource Recovery: Science and Solutions – A Framework for the Practice of Co-Digestion
This report describes co-digestion at municipal water resource recovery facilities that use domestic wastewater residuals as one of its feed materials.

Resource Recovery 

Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Water Supply Projects Compared to Direct Potable Reuse and Water Supply Evaluation Tool (WaterSET)
This project provides utilities a means to determine if, and by how much, different weighting factors may impact the ranking of a specific water supply option or treatment approach.

 Water Reuse  Reuse-14-03
User’s Guide for Integrated Stormwater and Wastewater Planning
This research provides information that communities should consider in determining if an integrated plan is right for their community.

Integrated Water,

Assessing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Biofilm Systems
This research addresses the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas that’s formed in wastewater treatment biofilm processes.

Resource Recovery 
Flushing Guidance for Premise Plumbing and Service Lines to Avoid or Address a Drinking Water Advisory
This study identified situations when flushing is advisable and explored the best practices for flushing premise plumbing and service lines.

Drinking Water  4572 
Development of a Risk Management Strategy for Legionella in Reclaimed Water Systems
This study examined how frequently Legionella occur in reclaimed water systems and what impacts reclaimed water storage and distribution systems afford for Legionella regrowth or persistence.

Water Reuse Reuse-12-05 
Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Reservoir Water Quality
This project produced a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on reservoir water quality under a range of climatic scenarios. 

Drinking Water,
Climate Change 

Cyanobacterial Blooms and Cyanotoxins: Knowledge Synthesis, Utility Workshop and Research Gaps

This project consolidated and synthesized the existing literature on cyanotoxins into a summary document, which was reviewed during a facilitated workshop held in Boulder, CO, in June 2016.

 Drinking Water 4657 

Unintended Consequences of Implementing Nitrosamine Control Strategies
The objectives of this project were to (1) provide an assessment of unintended consequences resulting from nitrosamine control strategies and identify potential solutions, and (2) translate those findings into clear guidelines for water systems that are either already evaluating changes and/or will need to implement control strategies to reduce nitrosamine concentrations in response to a regulatory determination.

Drinking Water   4491

Occurrence, Proliferation, and Persistence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Wastewater Treatment
This project provides an overview of the state of the science of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in wastewater.

Water Reuse

Chemical Management of Hydrilla For Drinking Water Utilities
The primary purpose of this project was to explore best management approaches to the control of the aquatic invasive plant Hydrilla verticillate (hydrilla) in drinking water sources.

Drinking Water   4747

Developing Tools for Surface Water Nutrient Loading Attributable to Reclaimed Water
This project sought to identify a marker unique to municipal reuse water and to investigate additional markers indicative of nutrient attenuation during reclaimed water transport in the environment.

 Water Reuse Reuse-13-11 
Optimizing Biofiltration for Various Source Water Quality Conditions

The overall objective of this project was to identify biofilter enhancement strategies that yield reliable, sustained, and robust achievement of treatment and operational goals across multiple source water qualities, and to provide clear and concise guidance for utilities on when and how to implement each strategy.

Drinking Water  4555 

Transformation of EDCs/PPCPs and Resulting Toxicity Following Drinking Water Disinfection

This project used novel concepts in computational chemistry and toxicology to predict the likely transformation products (TP) of relevant EDCs/PPCPs with a range of disinfection and oxidation options (such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines) commonly used in the production of drinking water, and then applied comprehensive in vitro toxicity testing to determine their likely toxicity profile.

Drinking Water   4396

University-Utility Collaborative Partnerships
This report highlights nine case studies of university-utility collaborations and includes information on conducting university-utility collaborations, sample contract language, and master agreement templates.

Leveraging Data from Non-Destructive Examinations to Help Select Ferrous Water Mains for Renewal
The objective of this project was to demonstrate whether NDE can be used cost effectively on some mains, and the results used to infer the condition of similar mains
Drinking Water,
Asset Management 

White Paper: Management of Water Sector Utilities: Summary of Industry Initiatives and Research
This White Paper provides an overview of several key ongoing industry initiatives and research related to management of water resource utilities.